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世界上第一座“智能建造”的花园 清华大学建筑学院 – 中南置地数字建筑中心

时间:2018-07-20  来源:gooood   编辑:   浏览:174次
把机器臂自动砌砖与3D打印砂浆结合在一起,你有没有想过用机器来砌墙?自动砌筑系统改变了一般砌砖系统的抓砖方式、而是采取了由气泵控制的吸砖器吸砖的方法,可以用于砌筑富于变化排列的砖块砖墙而不至于碰撞;同时,砂浆打印可以更准确地将砂浆定位。

由徐卫国教授领衔的清华大学(建筑学院)-中南置地数字建筑研究中心,发明了"机器臂自动砌筑系统",与国际国内现有砌砖系统不同,首次把机器臂自动砌砖与3D打印砂浆结合在一起,形成全自动一体化智能建造系统;并在世界上首次把该系统运用于实际施工现场,建成一座"砖艺迷宫花园"。

▼花园鸟瞰图,bird view

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▼砖艺迷宫,a brick labyrinth garden

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Tsinghua University (School of Architecture)-Zoina Land Joint Research Center for Digital Architecture (JCDA) led by Professor Xu Weiguo invented the "Automatic Masonry System by Robotic Arms". Unlike the existing bricklaying systems, this integrative system combines bricklaying and 3D printing mortar process together to achieve fully automatic smart construction method; and for the first time in the world, the system is used on the actual construction site instead of a laboratory: a brick labyrinth garden was built with this system in Zhangjiakou.

▼花园概览,Overview

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自动砌筑系统改变了一般砌砖系统的抓砖方式、而是采取了由气泵控制的吸砖器吸砖的方法,可以用于砌筑富于变化排列的砖块砖墙而不至于碰撞;同时,砂浆打印可以更准确地将砂浆定位。

The automatic masonry system changes the conventional way of picking up bricks, using vacuum lifters instead of clamps, which can lay bricks in variegated walls without collision; meanwhile, the mortar can be printed more accurately.

▼自动砌筑系统工作过程,The automatic masonry system

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花园位置|Site

砖艺迷宫花园位于冬奥砖艺小镇武家庄村(张家口市下花园定方水乡);由于村内拥有乡域唯一的砖厂,近年来武家庄的改造建设大面积使用了红砖作为建筑及装饰材料,因而成为全张家口市闻名的砖艺小镇;迷宫花园位于武家庄村的村头三角地,该花园建成后,成为村民休闲聚集的场所。

The garden is located in Wujiazhuang Village (Dingfangshui, Xiahuayuan, Zhangjiako), a village featuring in brick buildings specially designed for the 2022 winter Olympics. The village owns the only brick factory in the neighboring area, so red bricks have been used widely in the renovation as construction and decoration in recent years, making the village famous in Zhangjiakou. The garden locates in a triangle site near the entrance of the village. After its completion, it becomes a place for villagers to gather and relax.

▼迷宫花园位于武家庄村的村头三角地,该花园建成后,成为村民休闲聚集的场所,The garden locates in a triangle site near the entrance of the village. After its completion, it becomes a place for villagers to gather and relax

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▼花园中种植的竹子与红砖墙相得益彰,bamboo

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香港六合彩特码概念|Concept of design

迷宫花园为一直径13米的圆形用地,圆内三条蜿蜒曲折的砖墙不仅在平面上形成复杂连续的褶皱空间,并且砖墙在竖直方向上也采用曲面形态,加之砖墙的砖块细部砌筑也凹凸变化,因而它成为空间及视觉的双重迷宫;三条砖墙沿圆边的外侧空间用于种植竹子及草皮,其内侧空间则是居民活动的场地,中国传统阴和阳的相生相对性在这里以复杂性呈现。

▼香港六合彩特码概念,concept

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The base of this garden is a circle with a diameter of 13m with irregular carved areas. Three winding brick walls laying on the circle form continuous drapes in plan, and adopt curved form in the vertical direction too. With more changes in bricks' position and angles, these walls form a labyrinth both in vision and space. Bamboos and grass are planted in the outer area of the curved walls, while the inner space is designed for the villagers' activities, which presents the relativity relationship of Chinese Yin and Yang in complexity.

▼俯瞰花园,top view

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形态生成|Morphology generation

迷宫花园的香港六合彩特码借助于数字生成技术,首先在犀牛软件里生成曲面形体,其形似飘逸的绸带,同时对曲面进行形态的优化,确认其符合空间流线和人体尺度的基本要求。接着将这一基础曲面导入参数化软件grasshopper中进行分析并布置砖块,首先提取基础曲面在各个高度上的曲线,作为每一行砖的基准线;再在基准线上分出各个砖块的间隔;上下层的砖块之间错位排列;最后通过参考线控制砖块产生垂直于曲线的前后错位,以生成砖墙凹凸渐变的肌理。

The design of the garden is based on digital generation technology. Firstly, a curved shape is generated in the rhinoceros software. It is shaped like a flowing ribbon, and the shape of the surface is optimized to make sure that it meets the basic requirements of circulation flow and human scale. The base curve was then introduced into Grasshopper to arrange the bricks. We extract curves in a series of profile heights of the surface as the reference lines for each row of bricks; then divide the lines to arrange bricks and ensure staggered position in adjacent rows; at last, use additional reference lines to generate changes in bricks' position perpendicular to the surface, making gradient patterns on the curved surface.

▼形态生成过程,Morphology generation

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砌筑路径|Masonry path

生成砖墙模型后,香港六合彩特码团队结合搭建方式香港六合彩特码出机械臂运动轨迹,并使用KUKA|PRC将其导出为机械臂可识别的程序语句。机械臂的运动动作包括用真空吸盘取砖、在指定位置放砖、翻转机械臂前端、根据砖块排布在砖面上打印砂浆等几个操作,运动轨迹命令中整合了机械臂对气泵等外部设备发出的控制指令,并经过避障香港六合彩特码。在程序中模拟后,由PRC导出程序用于机械臂执行,实现从数字模型到实际建造物的精确转化。

After the digital model of brick walls is generated, the design team designs the robot arm's movement path in combination with the construction method, and uses KUKA|PRC to export it as program codes recognizable by the robotic arm. The process includes picking up bricks by vacuum lifters, releasing bricks in designated positions, flipping the tool to print mortar and print mortars according to designed path. The codes also integrated commands for external devices like air pump issued by the robotic arms' IO module, and pass the obstacle avoidance test in simulation. After simulation in the program, the PRC exports program for robotic arm execution, so that we can achieve accurate conversion from the digital model to the actual building.

▼花园立面,elevation

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▼自动砌筑系统生成的砖墙,brick walls

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砌筑模拟|Simulation

该花园有两台机器臂同时工作进行砌筑,一台机器臂为KUKA KR210,臂长2.7米;另一台为KUKA KR120,臂长3.9米;为了更高效地发挥机器臂的工作效率,同时也为了避免机器臂工作时产生碰撞,首先对机器臂的工作位置进行了施工组织香港六合彩特码。整个花园使用这两台机器臂砌筑需要移动7次,对每个工作位的机器臂工作可以通过KUKA|PRC软件进行模拟。

There are two robotic arms working together in the construction process, one is KUKA KR210 with arm length of 2.7m; the other one is KUKA KR120 with arm length of 3.9m. The positions of construction and their procedure have been designed in order to maximum the efficiency of this automatic system and avoid any collision the robots or the walls. The two robotic arms were moved 7 times in total to complete the whole process, and each course has been simulated in the PRC program.

▼砌筑模拟,Simulation

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破坏试验|Destruction test

在试验阶段,还进行了砖墙破坏试验,验证其满足砖墙香港六合彩特码及施工规范。本墙体工程根据环境温度使用了不同类型的砂浆,其流动性和早强时间可满足3D打印成型方式的需求,并可满足冬季和夏季施工时的不同需求。砂浆使用了425#水泥,水灰比约为0.7,强度可达16MPa。在足期养护后,用沙袋进行了破坏冲击实验,强度满足花园使用要求。

In the experimental phase, a brick wall damage test was also carried out to test whether it reaches the standard of the design and construction specifications of the brick walls. We used different types of mortar according to the environment temperature which can satisfy demands for both winter and summer construction, and their fluidity and early strength time can meet the requirements of 3D printing. The mortar used 425# cement, while the water-cement ratio was about 0.7, and the mortar strength was up to 45MPa. After the maintenance period, sandbags were used to destroy two experiment walls, and their strength are up to the standard of China's specification.

▼破坏实验,Destruction test

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实际建造|Construction

实际建造过程包括施工放线、基础施工、墙体砌筑、绿化种植、以及地面铺装等阶段。施工放线使用了全站仪;基础施工时,用机器臂热线切割泡沫填充曲墙外侧绿化用地,该泡沫同时作为外模,花园的砖墙底部及活动场所采用了钢筋混凝土基础底板(板厚30公分)。"机器臂自动砌筑系统"用于墙体的砌筑时至少需要两位工作人员,其中一位进行该系统的操作,另一位负责传递砂浆及砖块;机器臂的移动采用了叉车定位搬动,每次搬动后需要进行机器臂定位校准,以保证施工精度。墙体完工后,去除砖墙外侧地面的泡沫并填充种植土,进行竹子及草皮种植;同时进行花园砖墙内测活动场地的地面铺砌。

The construction process includes measuring, foundation construction, wall masonry, landscape construction, and ground paving etc. After we used total station to measure the site, we used the robotic arm to cut 30cm-thick foam blocks to make molds for the outer curved green area, and poured reinforced concrete inside the forms to make a slab for brick walls and activity areas. As for the masonry process by the smart construction system, at least two workers are needed. One of them will operate the system, and the other one will move mortar and bricks. Forklift is used to move the robotic arm to designed positions. In order to ensure construction precision, robotic arm positioning calibration will be conducted after each movement. After the completion of the walls, we remove the foam surrounded and refill soil and plant grass and bamboo in future. Concurrently, inside the wall, hollow bricks are used to pave the garden.

▼施工现场,construction site

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▼世界上第一座"智能建造"的花园,The world's first smart constructed garden

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清华大学(建筑学院)-中南置地数字建筑联合研究中心
   研发小组成员:徐卫国,高远,张志龄,孙晨炜,韩冬,林志鹏,罗丹,孙仕轩,程瑜飞

Tsinghua University(School of Architecture)-Zoina Land Joint Research Center for Digital Architecture
   Team members: Xu Weiguo, Gao Yuan, Zhang Zhiling, Sun Chenwei, Han Dong, Lin Zhipeng, Luo Dan, Sun Shixuan, Cheng Yufei

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